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Gemini Space Missions

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Gemini Space Missions

 

Gemini-1 (1)

 

Pad LC-19 ()

Titan-II (1)

 

Mission Objective:

Demonstrate GLV performance; flight qualify subsystems, Determine exit heating of GLV and spacecraft. Demonstrate structural integrity of GLV and spacecraft; Demonstrate GLV and ground guidance systems performance in achieving proper orbital insertion; Monitor, evaluate GLV switchover circuits.

 

Secondary Objectives included: Evaluate operational procedures for GLV trajectory and cutoff conditions; Verify orbital insertion by tracking C-band transponder in spacecraft; Demonstrate performance of launch and tracking networks; Provide training for flight controllers and prelaunch and launch crews and facilities.

 

Launch:

April 8, 1964 11:00:01.69 am EST.

 

Orbit:

Altitude: 320km x 160.3km

Inclination: xxx degrees

Orbits: 64

Duration: 4 Days, hours, min, seconds

Distance: km

 

Landing:

April 12, 1964

 

Mission Highlights:

Successful orbital test of the Titan-II launch vehicle, spacecraft structural integrity and launch vehicle spacecraft compatibility. Unmanned, no plan to recover. Mission terminated after 3 orbits and spacecraft disintegrated 3.5 days after launch). All primary and secondary objectives achieved.

 

http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/history/gemini/gemini-1/gemini-1.html

 

Event: 1964-04-00; Earth Orbit Gemini 1

 

 

Gemini-3 (3)

 

Pad LC-19 ()

Titan-II (3)

 

Crew:

Virgil I. Grissom (2), commander

John W. Young (1), pilot

 

Backup Crew:

Walter M. Schirra, Jr.

Thomas P. Stafford

 

CapCom:

L. Gordon Cooper (Cape)

Roger B. Chaffee (Houston)

 

Mission Objective:

Demonstrate manned orbital flight; evaluate two-man design. Demonstrate and evaluate tracking network. Demonstrate OAMS capability in orbital maneuvers and in retrofire backup. Demonstrate controlled reentry and landing. Evaluate major spacecraft subsystems. Demonstrate systems checkout, prelaunch, and launch procedures. Demonstrate and evaluate recovery procedures and systems. Spacecraft weight: 3225kg.

 

Secondary objectives included: Evaluate flight crew equipment, biomedical instrumentation, and personal hygiene system. Perform 3 experiments. Evaluate low-level longitudinal oscillations (Pogo) of the GLV. General photographic coverage in orbit.

 

Launch:

March 23, 1965 9:24:00.064 am EST. There was one brief hold on launch day while a sensor on an oxidizer line was adjusted.

 

Orbit:

Altitude: 224km

Inclination: 33.0 degrees

Orbits: 3

Duration: 0 Days, 4 hours, 52 min, 31 seconds

Distance:

 

Landing:

March 23, 1965. Landing at 22deg26m North and 70deg 51min West. Miss distance from landing zone 111.1km (60nm). Recovered by USS Intrepid. Crew onboard in 70 min.

 

Mission Highlights:

All primary objectives were achieved except the controlled reentry objective was only partially achieved. The angle of attack during reentry was lower than expected. Secondary objectives were only partially achieved. The personal hygiene system was only partially tested, Operating mechanism failed on S-2 - Synergistic Effect of Zero Gravity on Sea Urchin Eggs Experiment and the photographic coverage objective was only partially successful because of an improper lens setting on the 16mm camera.

 

http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/history/gemini/gemini-3/gemini-3.html

 

 

Gemini-IV (4)

 

Pad LC-19 ()

Titan-II (4)

1st NASA EVA

 

Crew:

James A. McDivitt (1), Commander

Edward H. White II (1), Pilot

 

Backup Crew:

Frank Borman

James A. Lovell, Jr.

 

CapCom:

Clifton C. Williams, Jr. (Cape)

Virgil I. Grissom (Houston)

 

Mission Objective:

Evaluate effects of prolonged space flight. Demonstrate and evaluate performance of spacecraft and systems in 4-day flight. Evaluate procedures for crew rest and work cycles, eating schedules, and realtime flight planning. Spacecraft weight: 3574kg.

 

Secondary objectives included: Demonstrate and evaluate EVA and control by use of HHMU and tether. Stationkeep and rendezvous with second stage of GLV. Evaluate spacecraft systems. Make in-and-out-of plane maneuvers. Further test OAMS retro backup capability. Perform 11 experiments.

 

Launch:

June 3, 1965 10:15:59.562 am.

 

Orbit:

Altitude: 296.1 km (159.9nm)

Inclination: 32.5 degrees

Orbits: 62

Duration: 4 Days, 1 hour, 56 min, 12 seconds

Distance: km

 

Landing:

June 7, 1965. Landing was at 27deg 44min North and 74deg 11min West. Landing was 81.4km from attempted landing zone.

Mission Highlights:

Gemini-4 was NASA's 1st Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) operation. EVA time 36min

 

All but one primary objectives were achieved. Computer controlled reentry in the demonstration and evaluation of spacecraft systems objective was not flown because of inadvertent alteration of computer memory. All secondary objectives were met except one. The secondary objective of stationkeeping and rendezvous was only partially successful because separation and rendezvous was not attempted due to fuel consumption.

 

http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/history/gemini/gemini-iv/gemini-iv.html

 

Event: 1965-06-00; Earth Orbit Gemini 4

 

 

Gemini-V (5)

 

Pad LC-19 ()

Titan-II (5)

 

Crew:

C. Gordon Cooper (2), Commander

Charles Conrad, Jr (1), Pilot

 

Backup Crew:

Neil A. Armstrong

Elliot M. See, Jr

 

CapCom:

Virgil I. Grissom (Cape)

James A. McDivitt (Houston)

Edwin E. Aldrin (Houston)

Neil A. Armstrong (Houston)

 

Mission Objective:

Evaluate rendezvous Guidance and Navigation system with REP. Demonstrate 8-day capability of spacecraft and crew. Evaluate effects on weightlessness for 8-day flight. Spacecraft weight: 3605kg.

 

Secondary objectives included: Demonstrate controlled reentry guidance. Evaluate fuel cell. Demonstrate all phases of guidance and control system operation needed for rendezvous. Evaluate capability of both crewmen to maneuver spacecraft to rendezvous. Checkout rendezvous radar. Execute 17 experiments.

 

Launch:

August 21, 1965; 8:59:59.518am EST. A launch attempt on August 19 was postponed due to weather conditions and problems with loading cryogenic fuel for the fuel cell.

 

Orbit:

Altitude: 349.8 km

Inclination: 32.61 degrees

Orbits: 120

Duration: 7 Days, 22 hours, 55 min, 14 seconds

Distance: km

 

Landing:

August 29, 1965. Landing was at 29deg44min North and 69deg 45min West. Miss distance was 170.3km (92nm). Navy divers from the backup recovery ship USS DuPont (DD-941) recovered the crew and transfered them via helicopter to the USS Lake Champlain (crew onboard in 89 min).

 

Mission Highlights:

During the mission, problems developed with the fuel cell that precluded rendezvous with the radar evaluation pod (REP). Primary rendezvous G&N system with REP objective was not achieved. REP rendezvous was not attempted due to a decision to power down fuel cells.

 

Secondary objective to demonstrate controlled reentry guidance was not achieved due to incorrect navigation coordinates transmitted to the spacecraft computer from the ground. This caused an 89mile overshoot of the landing zone. Experiment D-2, Nearby Object Photography was not conducted when REP rendezvous was canceled.

 

http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/history/gemini/gemini-v/gemini-v.html

 

Event: 1965-08-21; Gemini 5

 

 

Gemini-VII (6)

 

Pad LC-19 ()

Titan-II (6)

 

Crew:

Frank Borman (1), Commander

James A. Lovell (1), Pilot

 

Backup Crew:

Edward H. White II

Michael Collins

 

CapCom:

Alan L. Bean (Cape)

Elliot M. See Jr. (Houston)

Eugene A. Cernan (Houston)

Charles A. Bassett II (Houston)

 

Mission Objective:

Primary object was to conduct 14-day mission and evaluate effects on crew. Secondary objectives included: Provide target for Gemini VI-A. Stationkeep with Gemini VI-A and with second stage of GLV. Conduct 20 experiments. Evaluate lightweight pressure suit. Evaluate spacecraft reentry capability. Conduct systems tests. Spacecraft weight: 3663kg.

 

Launch:

December 4, 1965 2:30:03.702pm EST

 

Orbit:

Altitude: 327km (177.1 nm)

Inclination: 28.89 degrees

Orbits: 206

Duration: 13 Days, 18 hours, 35 min, 1 seconds

Distance: km

 

Landing:

December 18, 1965. Landed at 25deg 25.1min North, 70.6deg 7min West Miss distance was 11.8km (6.4nm).

 

Mission Highlights:

All primary and secondary objectives were achieved.

 

http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/history/gemini/gemini-vii/gemini-vii.html

 

 

Gemini-VII (7)

 

Event: 1965-12-04; Gemini 7

 

 

Gemini-IX-A (9)

 

Pad LC-19 ()

Titan-II (9)

EVA

 

Crew:

Thomas P. Stafford (2), Commander

Eugene A. Cernan (1), Pilot

 

Backup Crew:

James A. Lovell Jr,

Edwin E. Aldrin

Capcoms:

 

Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr. (Cape,Houston)

Neil A. Armstrong (Houston)

James A. Lovell, Jr. (Houston)

Richard F. Gordon, Jr. (Houston)

 

Mission Objective:

Primary objective was to perform rendezvous and docking and conduct EVA. Secondary objectives included: Rendezvous with ATDA (launched 6/1/66 from Complex 14) in 3rd revolution. Conduct systems evaluation and equiperiod rendezvous. Execute 7 experiments. Practice Docking, Rendezvous from above and to demonstrate controlled reentry. The original crew of Gemini-IX, Elliott M. See and Charles Bassett were killed in an airplane crash on February 28, 1966. The backup crew was named to the prime crew positions. Spacecraft weight: 3750kg. ATDA weight: 1088kg

 

Launch:

June 3, 1966 8:39:33.335 am EST. GT-9 was postponed when TLV 5303 with Gemini Agena target vehicle GATV-5004 malfunctioned on May 17. In its place, a substitute target was used for GT-9A; the Augmented Target Docking Adapter (ATDA) was launched by an Atlas on June 1, 1966 (TLV-5304) from Launch Complex 14; However GT-9A was not launched the same day as planned due to a guidance system computer problem. After a brief hold, the spacecraft was launched on the 3rd day.

 

 

Orbit:

Altitude: 311.5km (168nm)

Inclination: 28.86 degrees

Orbits: 45

Duration: 3 Days, 0 hours, 20 min, 50 seconds

Distance: km

 

Landing:

June 6, 1966. Landing was at 27deg 52min N and 75deg 0.4min West. Miss distance .704 miles (.38 nm). Recovery ship USS Wasp (crew onboard in 52 min).

Mission Highlights:

Primary objective of rendezvous and docking was only partially achieved because the shroud on the ATDA failed to jettison. Instead GT-9A performed a number of rendezvous maneuvers, including a simulation of lunar module rendezvous. EVA time 2hours 7 min. During EVA maneuvers, Cernan's visor became fogged, and he was unable to test the Air Force maneuvering unit.

 

Secondary objective experiment S-10, Agena Micrometerorite Collection experiment was not attempted because EVA did not take place near Gemini Agena target vehicle (GATV).

 

http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/history/gemini/gemini-ix-a/gemini-ix-a.html

 

Event: 1966-06-03; Gemini 9

 

 

Gemini-X (10)

 

Pad LC-19 ()

Titan-II (10)

EVA

 

Crew:

John W. Young

Michael Collins

 

Backup Crew:

Alan L. Bean

Clifton C. Williams, Jr.

 

CapCom:

L. Gordon Cooper Jr. (Cape, Houston)

Edwin E. Aldrin (Houston)

 

Mission Objective:

Primary objective was to rendezvous and dock with Gemini Agena target vehicle (GATV-5005) launched as TLV-5305 from Complex 14 on 7/18/66. Secondary objectives included: Rendezvous and dock in 4th revolution. Rendezvous with Gemini Agena target vehicle GATV-8 using Agena propulsion systems, Conduct EVA, Practice docking, Perform 14 experiments, Perform system evaluation on bending-mode tests; docked maneuvers; static discharge; monitoring; post-docked Agena maneuvers; reentry guidance; park Gemini Agena target vehicle (GATV) in 352km (190.3 nm) orbit. Spacecraft weight: 3763kg. GATV weight: 8097kg

 

Launch:

July 18, 1966. 5:20:26.648 pm EST

 

 

Orbit:

Altitude: 753.3km (412.2 nm)

Inclination: 28.85 degrees

Orbits: 43

Duration: 2 days 22 hours 46 min 39 seconds

Distance: km

 

Landing:

July 21, 1966. 4:07pm. Landing was at 26deg 44.7min North and 71deg 57min West. Miss distance was 6.2km (3.4 nm).

 

Mission Highlights:

1 hour, 29 min. EVA. All primary objectives and most secondary objectives were met. The practice docking secondary objective and some experiments were canceled due to insufficent fuel reserves.

 

http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/history/gemini/gemini-x/gemini-x.html

 

Event: 1966-07-18; Gemini 10

 

 

Gemini-XI (11)

 

Pad LC-19 ()

Titan-II (11)

 

Crew:

Charles Conrad Jr.

Richard F. Gordon Jr.

 

Backup Crew:

Neil A. Armstrong

William A. Anders

 

CapCom:

Clifton C. Williams Jr. (Cape)

John W. Young (Houston)

Alan L. Bean (Houston)

 

Mission Objective:

Primary objective was to rendezvous and dock with Gemini Agena target vehicle (GATV-5006) which was launched 9/12/66 from Launch Complex 14 as TLV-5306 in 1st revolution. Secondary objectives included: Practice docking, Perform EVA. Conduct 11 experiments, Maneuver while docked (high apogee excursion), Conduct tethered vehicle test, Demonstrate automatic reentry and Park GATV-10 in 352.4km orbit. Spacecraft weight: 3798kg. GATV weight: 8097kg

 

Launch:

September 12, 1966 9:42:26.546 am EST. The launch was postponed twice; On September 9 due to a small leak in the first stage oxidizer tank of the GLV; and on the 10th due to a suspected malfunction of the autopilot on the GLV. On the day of the launch there was a 16 min hold due to a suspected leak around the command pilot's hatch.

 

 

Orbit:

Altitude: 1368.9 km (739.2nm)

Inclination: 28.83 degrees

Orbits: 44

Duration: 2 Days 23 hours 17 min 8 seconds

Distance: km

 

Landing:

September 15, 1966. Landing was at 24deg 15.4min North and 70deg 0.0min West. Miss distance was 4.9km (2.65nm). Recovery ship USS Guam (crew onboard in 24 min).

Mission Highlights:

All Primary objectives and most secondary objectives were achieved. Experiment D-16, Power Tool Evaluation was canceled when the EVA was terminated early. During EVA, astronaut Gordon tethered the two spacecraft together with a 30-meter line. Automatic reentry was successful.

 

http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/history/gemini/gemini-xi/gemini-xi.html

 

Event: 1966-09-12; Gemini 11

 

 

Gemini-XII (12)

 

Pad LC-19 ()

Titan-II (12)

 

Crew:

James A. Lovell Jr., Commander

Edwin E. Aldrin, Pilot

 

Backup Crew:

L. Gordon Cooper, Jr.

Eugene A. Cernan

 

CapCom:

Stuart A. Roosa (Cape)

Charles Conrad Jr. (Houston)

William A. Anders (Houston)

 

Mission Objective:

Primary object was rendezvous and docking and to evaluate EVA. Secondary objective included: Tethered vehicle operation, perform 14 experiments, rendezvous and dock in 3rd revolution, demonstrate automatic reentry, perform docked maneuvers, practice docking, conduct system tests and to park Gemini Agena target vehicle GATV-12 in 555.6 km (300nm) orbit.

 

Launch:

Nov 11, 1966 3:46:33.419 pm EST.

 

 

Orbit:

Altitude: 301.3km (162.7nm)

Inclination: 28.78 degrees

Orbits: 59

Duration: 3 Days, 22 hours, 34 min, 31 seconds

Distance: km

 

Landing:

Nov 15, 1966. Landed at 24deg 35min North 69deg 57min West. Miss distance was 4.8km (2.6nm)

Mission Highlights:

EVA time 5 hours, 30 min. All primary objectives and most secondary objectives were met. Docked maneuvers were canceled due to a propulsion anomaly during Gemini Agena target vehicle (GATV) insertion. The GATV was not placed in a 555.6km orbit because its attitude control gas was depleted by earlier maneuvers.

 

http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/history/gemini/gemini-xii/gemini-xii.html

 

Event: 1966-11-12; Gemini 12

 

 



 

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