Russians Study Bigfoot
by Paul Stonehill
In this article I will describe how Bigfoot is studied by Russian scientists and researchers of the paranormal.
One of the leading Russian authorities on Bigfoot was Maya Bykova. In 1955 she graduated from the Moscow Agricultural Academy. For many years she had been studying Bigfoot (she named it Relict Hominoid). Since 1972 she had organized a dozen expeditions to search for traces of animals unknown to science. None of the expeditions enjoyed the support of official bodies. Maya Bykova authored three books on Bigfoot: " A legend for adults," " He is, though he must not be", "Not that frightful thing..."
Bykova was interested in the properties of Bigfoot that make it so mysterious and enigmatic. After long years of her studies, she came to some interesting conclusions.
Bigfoot's appearance, described by many eyewitnesses, betrays the creature's earthly origin. It has a traditional constitution, i.e., four limbs with five fingers each, one head, one trunk; it looks like a man or a huge ape with its fur-covered body. Bigfoot is active at night and moves very fast. It possesses some protective properties that make it invisible to humans. No one has ever seen its dwelling. Nobody knows anything about the reasons for this beast's migrations.
The most stunning property attributed to Bigfoot is his ability to disappear and appear suddenly, as if "dissolving" momentarily. At first Bykova used to ignore such testimonies until a certain occurrence.
The unusual properties are the reason why people invent various, sometimes fantastic hypotheses of Bigfoot's origin. Some tend to look for his tracks in other dimensions, while others connect its appearance with UFOs. The Russian researcher believed that there is no basis for these suppositions. One thing is clear to her: as we have no access to the object of our interest we cannot supply a scientific explanation of the whole phenomenon. We can only try to explain Bigfoot's features using the testimonies of thousands of people.
Bigfoot's fur can easily be compared to that of a monkey. However, some bigfootologists object, saying that large apes live only in warm countries. Moreover, until recently people used to believe that apes can only live in places where the air temperature never drops below 14 degrees Celsius and where there are no sharp temperature fluctuations. At the same time it is common knowledge that Bigfoot can be encountered anywhere from red-hot deserts to areas inside the Arctic Circle.
There are well-known animals that can live in conditions that seem completely unsuitable for any kind of life. So-called "snow monkeys" belonging to Macaca speciosa are among such animals. They are found in sparsely populated regions of Northern Japan. As a rule Macacae speciosae live in the tropics. "Snow monkeys" differ from their close relatives in the shade of their fur it is light and thick. They are larger and live in mountainous terrain where snow covers the ground four months a year.
As a rule, animals that live in the North are large. This is easy to explain: large animals conserve warmth longer. The macaques find their food-grass, young sprouts, leaf buds and tree bark-under the snow. As late as 1963 the Japanese scholars tamed a group of these animals for their experiments.
In the 70s several articles about the experiments of the Japanese scholars were published. The Russian scientist is certain that more research has been done; she knows nothing about any results. Bykova and her colleagues are very much interested in the peculiarities of the fur the monkeys are covered with, the structure of their skin, their behavior, and more. Russian bigfootologists need this information badly.
Maya Bykova; however, was aware of only one serious research into the color of the fur. It is taking place at the North-Eastern University in Boston, Massachusetts. There are very significant similarities: despite its whiteness, the fur of the Polar bear is capable of converting 90 percent of the Sun's energy it catches into warmth. Bigfoot inhabiting areas inside the Arctic Circle has fur of the same color. Polar bears convert into warmth almost all of the ultraviolet rays and part of the visible ones, and reflects light evenly throughout the whole visible spectrum, which is why it appears white to people. Experiments showed that when a portion of this fur is placed under the glass of a solar collector, the efficiency of the apparatus increases by 50 percent and more. Thus, peculiarities of the fur can enhance the survival of an earthly creature.
Despite such facts, some zoologists and bigfootologists refuse to discuss the very possibility of Bigfoot living inside the Arctic Circle.
Maya Bykova had coined a term for this phenomenon: camouflage of its (Bigfoot's-P.S.) biofield. The creature does it to become invisible. It is traditionally believed that Bigfoot has been sighted in the Himalayas although, according to the Russian scientist, the creature knows no limits and can be encountered on all five continents.
Tibetan "red-hatted" monks say that the "yeti" possesses control over the will or, to be more specific, it can stop the activity of its brain specially to become invisible. Monks themselves can do this: it being the necessary part of their gradual perfection. The "red-hatted" monks believe that Bigfoot (yeti) is the only creature on Earth that has preserved the ability to dissolve and become completely invisible to those around it. The monks say that Europeans have often sighted it, observed Bigfoot as a real object and even followed it. Each time they were left disappointed. Bigfoot disappeared every time...into thin air. Bykova thinks that this is a case of "psychological suggestion." It is directed not outwards, but inwards, at itself, as was proposed by Professor Porshnev as early as 1974 in his book "About early human history." Excessive psychic, nervous or physical strain can trigger spontaneous natural autotraining that leads to something like lethargy. This does not mean complete physical disappearance, but invisibility vis-a-vis the observer.
This is the essence of Maya Bykova's approach to the problem. In Professor Porshnev's opinion, humans have lost this and similar abilities as a result of the increasing complexity of the human psyche. Popular beliefs offer proof of this. In the course of evolution the humans have gained much, including speech, but have lost something at a certain stage of our evolution, too. All facts cited above give us a chance to make one more step, although a tiny one, in the study of this most complicated and interesting phenomenon. This makes Bigfoot, who has not reached the level of speech, a creature parallel to homo sapiens, our companion, a member of the same order but not above or below us, and by no means our ancestor.
The situation gave a start to lots of wild guesses expressed by people who had never worked seriously to solve the problem. The voices of psychics and parapsychologists are the loudest in this chorus, stated Maya Bykova. They use the word "man"--Abominable Snow Man" being one of Bigfoot's names-to allege that this beast is either superior to humans in all aspects, or is a product of degradation of some mysterious tribes. To say this of the creature that knows no social life!-- fumes Russian scientist. She is quite convinced that analogues of this earthly creature's properties should be looked for on Earth, not in wild fantasies. This, according to Bykova, is the only possible approach to the problem.
Both Bigfoot's unique ability to adapt to various conditions of the environment and its unprecedented defense, including its skill to disappear, make the creature elusive. They are the sources of many legends surrounding his mysteriousness. In Bykova's views, the facts are amazingly simple: this creature can do everything homo sapien's ancestor and modern human could do at the preverbial stage of their history. These are the things humans strive to return to and which we admire when we encounter the signs of our past in some gifted individuals: telepathic communication, the ability to find a lost person, extraordinary vision of situations that occur on the other side of the globe (or inside the Earth), and so on.
Maya Bykova stated that Bigfoot's behavior is of no less interest than its natural gifts. The only objective of its self-perfection is to avoid close contact with humans at any price. The fact of its being an enigma for us is a result of Bigfoot's purposeful behavior. Eyewitnesses speak of encounters that lasted seconds, minutes at the most. Evidently Bigfoot's nervous system prevents it from encountering man face to face.
However, despite all the specific features of Bigfoot's behavior at present, the species is dying out.
Human eagerness to learn everything at once, accompanied by human complete loss of interest in the Earth itself and its inhabitants, leaves Bigfoot poor chances for survival-said Bykova. She apparently was not aware of ecological defense movements in the West (and now in the East, too). But she went on to say that there are those in Russia who are "impatient" and tired of waiting for reliable data of the creature's real existence. They are ready to shoot at the obstinate creature at the first opportunity, and so put an end to this problem once and for all. Others believe that Bigfoot's corpse will bring them the Noble prize. The gun-sights are trained on Bigfoot now, and this, in Maya Bykova's opinion, too is a problem.
Because Bigfoot realizes that it is a target, the creature has developed a powerful set of defensive mechanisms. Their inventory would not be complete if we were to ignore another of Bigfoot's qualities. Some Russian eyewitnesses say that it has the ability to influence people, filling them an unusual fear just short of complete paralysis. Bykova is convinced that it is "ancestral memory" that binds humans' nocturnal fears to notions of Bigfoot. She found unequivocal proof of this assumption during the expedition she headed in 1992.
It is interesting to note that during the same expedition, Bykova's guide, Maksim, discovered a dozen footprints (right and left feet) no less than 1.5 meters apart. The tracks ran down the stony slope of a hill. The slope descended at an angle of 30 degrees. Only the foolhardy would attempt to go down. The stones lay 15-20 centimeters apart, just enough for a foot to be caught in a natural trap. The tracks ran among shaggy fir-trees, which grow close together in the taiga. Nights are pitch-black here, especially between 3:00-4:00 a.m., more so when it is raining. Sometime later the same footprints like those of a size-29 boot, but even an inch longer with well-marked toes were seen not far off.
Encounters with animals always occur quite naturally on the lake inside the Arctic Circle where Bykova had spent the last seven seasons. Except for one incident, which relates to the beginning of this century: a local Saami, known by a single name, met the creature by a river that flows into the lake, took pity on Bigfoot, and left it some food. Ever since that first encounter in the winter, the Saami looked after his dependent. When the Saami was dying, he asked his daughter to give the hominoid creature food. This is what Bykova called an advanced contact. They are quite rare, but two such contacts are taking place in Russia now: one is in the Arkhangelsk region, the other near Vologda (she provides no further details). Similar relations have been reported between Bigfoot and local people of the Caucasus where population density is higher than in the North. Local hunters had informed Bykova and her colleagues that all the big game had left the area. This exodus has been caused by geological prospecting and tourist routes which pass right through the remote, hidden settlements and sacred places of the Saami people.
Russian Far East
Russian researcher Alexei Sitnikov and his team of researchers reported a very strange encounter they had in 1993, while on their way to Lake Tonee. Their plan was to determine the optimal time to conduct an expedition to search for proof of possible habitation in the region of a gigantic serpent. There have been numerous reports about the existence of a serpent in the Far Eastern part of Russia, in the Primorskaya taiga. The explorers had planned to study the area for some years, but were not able, because of lack of resources and poor state of Russian economy. In 1993 Sitnikov and his colleagues decided that no matter what, the Lake Tonee area had to be explored. Too many disturbing reports were coming from the area. Sitnikov had collected many descriptions of the creature, and also statements of local populace, including hunters.
The group of explorers had barely begun their trek through the territory when they had encountered a creature known to the locals as "snow man." They were crossing the river on a raft, and on the other bank of the river noticed a man, covered with reddish fur. The explorers recall that they felt no fear. The creature turned around, made a sound resembling grunts, and disappeared in the thicket. A few seconds later the raft had reached the shore, and Sitnikov with a colleague chased the creature. Their fellow explorer Sergei guarded the raft. They did not find the creature, and came back to the river. Sergei did find a barely visible footprint at the site where they first sighted the "snow man."
Sitnikov recalls that the creature was but three meters away when they saw it, and plainly visible. The weather was sunny and clear. The creature was about two meters in height, its fur was of a dark hue, and not thick. Its head was somewhat triangular in shape: it widened toward its base; rather, its base was straight, but from the forehead toward the crown the head narrowed. The creature had small eyes, wide nostrils, and a slit in place of a mouth. The neck was not visible, and it looked as if the head was placed on wide shoulders. It possessed a powerful chest. Whatever was below the chest the Russian explorers did not see.
There are many areas in that part of the taiga concealed from human eyes for millennia. Secret settlements have been found in the thick woods. Lake Tonee is full of mysterious, anomalous phenomena. Russia has neither financial means nor any plans to explore the taiga in the modern era of chaos and near-anarchy. For centuries reports about strange creatures and rituals have leaked from the taiga. Russian "snow man" could be yet another creature hidden in the impenetrable forests.
Valentin Septunov is a Doctor of Biological Sciences, and resides in St. Petersburg, Russia. He has conducted research of Bigfoot, and headed a number of important expeditions. Dr. Septunov has reported in ANOMALIYA (a Russian newspaper dedicated to covering the anomalous phenomena; Issue 22, 1995) results of his expeditions in the summer of 1995. He is one of those few courageous scientists who continue with the research, although they themselves are on the edge of poverty. No funds are being allocated for any significant research. Dr. Sapunov is fearful for the future of Russian cryptobiology. Being a true scientist and patriot, Dr. Sapunov cares for the ecological well-being of his country. Yet he has noticed that science is being neglected in today's Russia.
And still the work of scientists carries on. They continue to collect data about "snow man." Ties that had been cut when the Soviet Union disintegrated are being restored: information now comes to Petrograd (as its denizens like to call St. Petersburg) from the Baltic states, and Central Asia. Some information has been exchanged with American researchers, too. The Caucasus Mountains area has been cut off from research because of armed conflicts and terrorism. But the research in the Pamir-Altai Mountains, the Urals, and in the Russian Northwest goes on.
In the summer of 1995 Dr. Sapunov and his colleagues had been members of an expedition of the Center for Ecological Safety. The area of operation was the Viborgskiy region of the Karelsky Isthmus ( isthmus in Karelia, NW Russia, between the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga: 90 miles long). Dr. Sapunov was also a participant in the exploration work of the "Kriptobiologiya" society in the Sortavelsky and Olonetsky regions of Kareliya; the area is famous for the absence of people. Dr. Sapunov has studied a number of reports of a huge being stalking the area. Russian military borderguards have confirmed that they have tried to capture the mysterious creature (they have the ability to react quickly to the threat), but to no avail. Dr. Sapunov has collected many reports. He hopes to be able to research them one day. The actual sighting of a "snow man" took place July 30, at 11:00 a.m.
Igor K., a technician from Petrograd, was walking in the forest, near the Vaskelovo village. He recalls that something unusual has occurred: he became very disoriented. Igor knew the area quite well, yet kept "walking in circles." A feeling came to him, a feeling that strange dusk has descended in the forest. Finally Igor came to a cutting in the forest. He noticed a giant silver-furred man at a distance. The creature made a few steps toward Igor, but then disappeared behind trees. The height of the creature was about three meters. Dr. Sapunov received the report late, and was able to get to the area in September. Sergei Turkin, another researcher, came along. The ground where the sighting took place was dry, covered with grass. No interesting traces were detected. But some dried-out trees had strange damage to the bark. Someone who possessed thick chisel-like nails, tore away the bark, up to the height of three meters. Whoever it was, he or it apparently liked larva of the bark-eating insects.
In June Dr. Sapunov had visited Riga, Latvia. He was invited by his Latvian colleagues. Dr. Sapunov helped open an exhibit of "Snow man" in the Museum of Nature. At the same time he participated in the planning of an expedition to find the " snow man" in the Pamir-Altai (Altai Mountains is a mountain system in Central Asia, Northwestern China, and West Mongolia. The highest pick there 15,000 feet. Pamirs is a mountain system mostly in Tadzhikistan. Highest pick is 25,000 feet)
The scientists had worked out a scheme to lure the "snow man" with the help of sexual pheromones of apes. Pheromone-any of various chemical substances secreted externally by certain animals that convey information to and produce specific responses in other individuals of the same species. Dr. Sapunov was not able to join the expedition, but his Riga colleagues under the scientific leadership of M. Kudryavtsev, a biologist and criminologist, were able to explore the mountainous route. There, in the mountains of the Altai, the "snow man," attracted by strong sexual secretions of female ape, for three nights had approached the camp, growled, and breathed heavily. It left its memorable footprints; the scientists knew them very well. Yes, they tried to take pictures of the creature, they had a special camera for that. Every time the creature appeared, strong panic and fear held back those experienced, strong and armed men. Hard to believe... but Dr. Sapunov himself had felt such fear on many occasions, while pursuing the elusive creature.
Dr. Sapunov has made many important findings about "snow man." The creature is an ecological antipode to homo sapiens. It likes to visit those areas that have lowered anthropogenetic load. That is why "snow man" has been sighted in forbidden, closed-off areas: the borderlands, nature reserves, and similar places. For example, in the south of the Ural mountains (mountain system in Russia, extending from the Arctic Ocean to the North border of Kazakhstan, traditionally regarded as the boundary between Europe and Asia) there have been many encounters with the "snow man" recently. The area there has been closed off for a long time because of radioactive pollution. When radiological toxicity had diminished and the environment was healed by nature (to an extent), the antropogenetic pressure had remained low, and our ecological antipode made its way there. The same processes took place in Chernobyl, and it is natural to suppose that the "snow man" will appear there in the offing.
The conclusion is: areas where reports of encounters with the "snow man" are frequent tend to be favorable ecologically. True, there are many other parameters beside the cyptobiological one, in the study of nature. But the proffered criteria of the state of nature can supplement the recognized parameters.
Russian scientists have used their findings, obtained in the course of many expeditions, to develop medicinal applications. However, lack of funding has stopped all work.
It is interesting to note that Russian sports industry has paid attention to the findings of the scientists. The theory that attracted the attention of the industry (as well as the military-industrial complex) is the one that postulates the following. "Snow man" has embodied most progressive biological solutions for the adaptation of humankind to its habitat. What humans get from material culture, the "snow man" has obtained in the course of biological progress. There has been profound research in Russia of the creature's movements (based on available photographs and films). And back in 1994, a Russian military college had begun studies of the movements of "snow man." The military there wants to apply the findings for their needs.
Russian Bigfoot sightings occur quite rarely and never last longer than a minute. That is why the reports are brief.
One of the most interesting (and relatively recent) encounters took place in November of 1992. Anatoly Dobrenko, who lives in the village of Samoryadovo (Dmitrov District, Moscow Region) and works in a local children's sanatorium, was walking his Alsatian dog near his sanatorium. Suddenly the dog bristled up and snarled angrily. Anatoly looked at what caused the dog's strange behavior, and saw a two-legged hairy monster some hundred meters away. The creature was moving away toward the forest. The man says that he could make out "rusty-colored matty hair on the creature's back" from the distance. When Dobrenko's son, Igor, an army captain, learned about the encounter, he went to the sighting area accompanied by some employees from the sanatorium.
He found some well-preserved prints of huge bare feet in the mud. They were nearly 50 centimeters long and 15 centimeters wide at the broadest part. The participants treated the prints like material evidence, covering them for better preservation.
Later Igor reported his findings to a newspaper. The newspaper arranged a thorough examination of the place. Local dwellers were interviewed. Some of them had seen signs of unusual guests' presence before. The search party discovered the place where the creature had spent a night-it was the attic of an abandoned summer cottage. Not one but two creatures seemed to have been there. The second set of tracks evidently belonged to a female, the feet were smaller. The investigation has not ended. But even if nothing more is found, Russian scientists are convinced that Bigfoot is a vagabond, whom neither distance nor borders can stop. There have been interesting sightings in the Arkhangelsk Region.
In autumn of 1989 Professor of Medicine Dr. N. Aleutsky flew to the local taiga to gather some herbs. He was on the bank of a river when a bear cub came up to him and yelped. The Professor heard the cub's mother roaring nearby. Dr. Aleutsky had a knife with him, but felt it would be a poor defense against an angry beast. The basket full of mushrooms was hastily abandoned, and Doctor was racing to his boat. Suddenly he heard a blood-chilling scream from behind. Turning his head the Doctor saw a gorilla-like creature holding the she-bear in its hands. The beast was 2.5 meters tall, its body covered with thick brown fur. It was a female, its large teeth were bared. Holding the bear by the hind legs the creature tore the animal in two without any visible effort.
The whole episode lasted seconds. Dr. Aleutsky told everything to two of his companions.
They tried to forget the event, and not tell anybody about it. Only after some time had passed did they decide to report the story. Luckily the eyewitnesses had a sound biological background. But the more time passed after the event the more the professor doubted the earthly existence of the creature he had sighted.
The third sighting took place on January 24, 1992 in the village of Sosnino-six kilometers from the ancient Russian town of Kargopol. Two creatures covered with long grizzly hair entered the barrack of a road-constructing army unit. One was enormously tall, about 2.5 meters, the other was half the size. Some circumstantial evidence shows that the larger one was a female and the other one-its child. The baby jumped on to the soldiers' night-table while its mother stopped by the stove, waved its long arms, and gave a series of short cries in a very low voice: "Ooh-ooh- ooh..." Then the strangers who encountered neither understanding nor approval had to hide in the forest.
This time the strange creatures were sighted by a dozen people. More soldiers had seen the creatures a short time before, in the morning, evening, and at night, but they did not believe their eyes. After the incident some soldiers felt ill and went to consult the unit's doctor. One witness could not utter a word. His speech returned several days later.
The strangers left behind some tufts of hair (they have not been identified so far), a drop of coagulated blood and footprints of a grown-up individual (50 centimeters long, 15 centimeters wide and 20 centimeters deep.) The snow was knee-deep for humans. Another episode occurred in the forest: a wolf was trotting in the forest near the tracks left by two strangers. It approached the tracks, stopped unable to cross them, and ran away.
The other Yeltsin
No record of the Russian studies of Bigfoot will be complete without mentioning Mikhail Sergeyevitch Yeltsin (no relation to the President of Russia). Back in early 1980's his underground report was circulating in the USSR, among researchers of anomalous phenomena. He was a journalist and deputy science chief of the "Gissar-82" expedition. The expedition was organized with the help of Komsomolskaya Pravda newspaper. The expedition had studied the "snow man" phenomenon since 1974. Since 1981 the "Gissar" expedition explored the Pamir mountains. Its findings had been published in the newspaper (still a very popular publication). Even "Moscow News" newspaper published a large article about "snow man" (it was titled "Snow man in the mountains of Tadzhikistan", dated November 15, 1981). The head of the "Gissar" expedition, Igor Frankovich Tzatl, revealed the latest information his explorers had obtained. Yet another Soviet scientist, Professor B.F. Porshnev had produced a monograph titled "The modern state of the Relict Hominoid issue." There were many people in the old USSR who were quite interested in the "issue." Major publications, such as Tekhnika-Molodezhi (1966, 1969, 1978) and Nauka y religiya (1964, 1968), as well as many newspapers and magazines featured articles about "snow man."
Many eyewitnesses said that near the area of sightings of apelike creatures, strange giant footprints (50-60 centimeters) were often found. M.S. Yeltsin, in his account of the "Gissar-83" expedition ( a manuscript) mentions that other anomalous phenomena (UFOs, and biophysical) were detected in the Pamir mountains.
In 1994 my colleagues from the Yaroslavl UFO Group (Yuri Aleksandrovich Smirnov and others) took part in the "Gissar-84" expedition. He had a mandate from the Leningrad Geographic Society of the USSR.
In the Pamir mountains the Yaroslavl researchers met with I.F. Tatzl. He summarized for them his experiences and knowledge of "snow man".
In his view, "snow man" is an objective reality. Tatzl has studied the creature for many years. Ape-like creatures study humans, just like we study them. "Snow man" possesses a powerful biofield. It feeds on berries. Sometimes it attacks sheep. It eats only their liver. "Snow man" does not eat much, not according to its weight. The creature likes those who guard and protect nature.
As a rule, "snow man" leaves no traces of its death. There have been cases when people tried to shoot "snowman." They are no longer with us... died under mysterious circumstances.
It is very difficult to see Hominoid. It can hide under any stone. It sees very well at night. "Snow man" is very careful. Human beings always feel when ape-like creatures look at them. Sometimes Bigfoot throws pebbles at humans-it is its way of being funny. However, should big stones be tossed, better leave immediately. As a rule, stones tossed by Bigfoot do not hit humans, as if it aims at other targets nearby: campfires, etc. Nobody ever saw an aggressive "snow man." The Russian scientist thinks that Bigfoot knows all there is to know about humans.
There have been reported cases of Bigfoot helping people who were in danger. Sometimes it warns humans of impending dangers. Several years ago (1982-P.S.) a group of tourists camped at the Bolshoi Igizak Ravine (Tadzik SSR). Suddenly stones hit their campfire. They ran away. Seconds later a big landslide buried their camp. But the tourists managed to escape unharmed. Bigfoot hates bright lights, it is a nocturnal creature.
M.S. Yeltsin resides in Bulgaria. The whereabouts of I.F. Taztl are not known ( I understand he has priceless archives about Bigfoot; his research papers, findings, sketches, maps.)
My Yaroslavl colleagues continue their thorough UFO phenomenon research, and have joined efforts with CUFOS in Chicago. They have no funds to study Bigfoot, and there are no "Gissar"-type expeditions to explore the Altai-Pamir mountains. Maya Bykova passed away in 1996. The Petrograd researchers are the most active today. Yet, even their hands are tied by pauperization of their country. I have written much about the strange giants of the Caucasus Mountains, and mysterious underwater giant hominoids of Siberia. The Caucasus area is closed to us by warfare. As for Siberia, I have not received any reports from my colleagues there in two years. My friend and fellow researcher, publisher, author, and explorer Alexander Rempel, who had collected much data on anomalous phenomena in the Far East of Russia (including Bigfoot) has disappeared, without a trace, like so many others have in that modern crumbling nation we call "Russia." He was on to something big , some tremendous story.
Huge societal changes have rocked Russia in its tortured transition to freedom and democracy. Let us hope the search for Bigfoot/yeti/snow man does not get lost in the transition.
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